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Titanim Dioxide


Parshwanath Dyestuff Industries introduces four types of Titanium Dixoide Products. These products are available in Food, Technical, Rutile And Anatase Grades and are used in various industries including, inks, dyestuff, paints, plastic and many others. Each batch goes through strict quality checking before being delivered to the client. We understand the Quality of Titanium Dioxide in important to you and thus we provide excellent quality Titanium Dixoide made from the worlds best Ilmenite Ore.

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Reactive Dyes

 Reactive dyes are a class of highly coloured organic substances, primarily used for tinting textiles, that attach themselves to their substrates by a chemical reaction that forms a covalent bond between the molecule of dye and that of the fibre. The dyestuff thus becomes a part of the fibre and is much less likely to be removed by washing than are dyestuffs that adhere by adsorption.

The first fibre reactive dyes were designed for cellulose fibres, and they are still used mostly in this way. There are also commercially available fibre reactive dyes for protein and polyamide fibres. In theory, fibre reactive dyes have been developed for other fibres, but these are not yet practical commercially. The dyes contain a reactive group that, when applied to a fibre in a weakly alkaline dyebath, form a chemical bond with the fibre. Reactive dyes can also be used to dye wool and nylon, in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions.

The most important characteristic of reactive dyes is the formation of covalent bonds with the substrate to be coloured, i.e. the dye forms a chemical bond with cellulose, which is the main component of cotton fibers.

Fiber reactive dyes are the most permanent of all dye types. Unlike other dyes, it actually forms a covalent bond with the cellulose or protein molecule. Once the bond is formed, what you have is one molecule, as the dye molecule has become an actual part of the cellulose fiber molecule. No wonder you can safely wash a garment that has been dyed in bright fiber reactive colours with white clothing, a hundred times, without endangering the whites in the least - even if it is all different bright colours, or even solid black! In contrast to all other dyes the reactive dyes bind chemically to the textile fibres, significantly improving the product's colour stability and washability. Thus reactive dying of cotton is currently the most widespread textile dying process in the world.

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Food Color

 The colour of food is an integral part of our culture and enjoyment of life. Even early civilizations such as the Romans recognized that people "eat with their eyes" as well as their palates. Saffron and other spices were often used to provide a rich yellow colour to various foods. Butter has been coloured yellow as far back as the 1300's.

Today, all food colour additives are carefully regulated by authorities to ensure that foods are safe to eat and accurately labeled.

Why Are Colour Additives Used In Foods?

Colour variation in foods throughout the seasons and the effects of food processing and storage often require that manufacturers add colour to certain foods to meet consumer expectations. The primary reasons of adding colours to foods include:

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Pigment Paste

Pigments are essentially coloured powder, and are used to produce a full range of colours. We can say pigments are a primary material, like petroleum or coal. Using this powder, we produce all types of paints and colouring material: enamels, acrylics, pastels, chalks, coloured pencils, oils, etc.

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Acid Dyes

 Acid dyes are water soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibres such as silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylic fibres from neutral to acid dye baths. Attachment to the fibre is attributed, at least partly, to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fibre. Water soluable Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibres. Acid dyes are used both commercially and by the studio dyer to dye protein/animal fibers such as wool, silk, mohair, angora, alpaca and some nylons and synthetics. Acid dyes require the use of an acid such as vinegar, acetic or sulphuric acid to set the colour.

Acid dyes sound scary to some novices, who imagine that the dyes themselves are caustic strong acids. In fact, the dyes are non-caustic, are in many cases non-toxic, and are named for the mild acid (such as vinegar) used in the dyeing process, and for the types of bonds they form to the fiber. Some of them are significantly more toxic than fiber reactive dyes, while others are even safe enough to eat, and are sold as food coloring.

Acid dyes sound scary to some novices, who imagine that the dyes themselves are caustic strong acids. In fact, the dyes are non-caustic, are in many cases non-toxic, and are named for the mild acid (such as vinegar) used in the dyeing process, and for the types of bonds they form to the fiber. Some of them are significantly more toxic than fiber reactive dyes, while others are even safe enough to eat, and are sold as food coloring.

Acid dyes fall into several classes:

 

  •     Leveling acid or strong acid dye,
  •     Milling or weak acid dyes, and
  •     Super milling or fast acid or neutral acid dyes.

 

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Direct Dyes

 Direct dyes are another class of dyes, one of the two types of dyes that are mixed in 'all purpose' dyes such as Rit. (The other type in the mixture is an acid dye, which will not stay in any cellulose fiber for long.) The colours of direct dyes are duller than those provided by fiber reactive dyes, and the washfastness is poor - expect anything dyed with them to 'bleed' forever. The one advantage is that direct dyes may be more lightfast, that is, resistant to fading in the light, than fiber reactive dyes. The "direct dye" classification in the Colour Index system refers to various planar, highly conjugated molecular structures that also contain one or more anionic sulfonate group. It is because of these sulfonate groups that the molecules are soluble in water. Though most direct dyes still can be obtained in powder form, it is increasingly popular to receive them as liquid concentrates. The advantage of concentrates is that they are easy to handle and meter. The disadvantage is that the surfactants and co-solvents needed to keep the dye concentrates stable may interfere with retention and sizing in the case of very deeply coloured grades.

Direct dyes are used on cellulose fibers such as cotton, rayon, and linen. They lack the permanence of the cold water fiber reactive dyes which most serious dyers prefer for use on cellulose fibers, but in some cases they have advantages that make their use worthwhile. For example, while many of the direct dyes are not very lightfast, there are some dyes in the class that may be more lightfast than similar shades of fiber reactive dyes. All direct dyes perform rather poorly with respect to washfastness. Without an appropriate after-treatment, direct dyes bleed a little with every washing, losing their brightness and endangering other clothes washed in the same load. However, there are special after-treatments which may be used to solve this problem. (Vinegar is not among them! In spite of claims you may see to the contrary, you cannot use vinegar to set any dye on cotton or other cellulose materials.) A product called Retayne, which is an ionic bulking agent which essentially "glues" the dye into the fiber, works very well to make fabric dyed with direct dyes washable without bleeding of the dye.

The name 'direct dye' alludes to the fact that these dyes do not require any form of 'fixing'. They are almost always azo dyes, with some similarities to acid dyes. They also have sulphonate functionality, but in this case, it is only to improve solubility, as the negative charges on dye and fibre will repel each other. Their flat shape and their length enable them to lie along-side cellulose fibres and maximize the Van-der-Waals, dipole and hydrogen bonds. Below is a diagram of a typical direct dye. Note that the sulphonate groups are spread evenly along the molecule on the opposite side to the hydrogen bonding -OH groups, to minimize any repulsive effects.

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Wood Stain Dyes

Sr No

Product
parwood

1% Light
fastness

0.25%
Light
Fastness

2% dye
Solubility in water

2% dye solubility in Methoxy propanol

01

Yellow L-GL

6

5

V Good

Excellent

02

Orange L-R

6

5-6

Moderate

Excellent

03

Scarlet L-L

4-5

3-4

V Good

Excellent

04

Red L-BB

5

4

V Good

Excellent

05

Red L-GN

6

5

V Good

Excellent

06

Rubine L-2R

5-6

5

V Good

Excellent

07

Brown L-GR

6

5

V Good

Excellent

08

Navy L-B

6

4

Good

Excellent

09

Black L-RB

5-6

4-5

V Good

Excellent

10

Olive LG

6

4

Good

Excellent

11

Black L-RX

5-6

4-5

V Good

Excellent

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